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1THE AUTHOR:received his BS in Electrical Engineering from the University of Maryland in 1939. He worked in the fields of Communication Techniques. Receiver Design, and VLF Satellite Propagation Studies at the Naval Research Laboratory from 1939–1961, and was a Satellite Tracking Station Director for NASA in Quito, Ecuador from 1961–1964. He then was Head of the Bureau of Ships Communication Transmitter Procurement Unit from' 1964–1966, and next moved to the areas of the VLF VERDIN System, General Communications, and the ELF SANGUINE System in the Naval Electronic Systems Command from 1966–1967. Since then he has been in the ELF Division. Electronics Branch of Special Communications PME 117 in the Naval Electronic Systems Command. He is a Registered Professional Engineer and a Senior Member of Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.

Copyright 1976 American Society of Naval Engineers


A desired military capability is continuous communications to all world wide deployed submarines, from one continental United States location, with minimum depth, speed, or heading constraints. Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) is the only usable portion of the electromagnetic spectrum which penetrates seawater to sufficient depths to meet these requirements. A practical ELF System can be hardened to withstand enormous enemy attacks, it can operate against jammers much larger than itself, and it is not seriously degraded by natural or nuclear induced ionospheric disturbances.

A brief theoretical description óf system operation is presented, showing how a vertical E-field wave is launched and propagated in the earth-ionosphere cavity, and propagates downward into the world's oceans. The required relation is shown between natural parameters such as deep earth conductivity, ionospheric height, ELF receiver site noise level, and engineering parameters such as frequency, antenna length, antenna arrangement, and antenna current. Practical system information is provided including transmitting antenna systems, modulation techniques, receiving sensors, and receiver design. Some actual message test results are shown for a communication path from the Navy Wisconsin Test Facility to a distant submerged submarine receiver.

10.1111/j.1559-3584.1976.tb05233.x About DOI

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