Dr. Edward F. Block IV, Ph.D.
Update March 2007
It comes to mind that there are several approaches to a schema which is possible to be made within the scope of the traditional information that has been summerized. The information previously presented has many common factors. All is based upon centuries of study, thought, analysis and practical experience. We need to keep in mind the many persons whom have made their contributions to mankinds evolving medical knowledge.
A new approach that departs from the traditional is however in order. The proposed new schema will organize and present new insights but will also most likely raise many new questions for research and study.
For the most part, Ayurvedic Medicine (AM) and thus Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are organized from a right brain perspective that is based upon the Meditational Art. Western Medicine (WM) is organized from a solely left brain approach that is based upon Science. AM and TCM borrow from left brain attributes but WM completely denies the existance of right brain perspectives except for that of intuition. AM and TCM works best for most human diseases as they are least intrusive while WM works especially well for trauma and modern surgical intervention. Both are coping with the diseases of genetic abnormality in their unique fashion with mixed results. AM and TCM make the time of treatment more of an integral part of the prescribed treatment than that of WM, although WM is very much aware of the component of time factors as relates to healing.
The common factors that are to be pursued are:
And in addition, the new factors to be discussed are:
The new schema will be both right brain and left brain in its approach. We will hopefully be able to see every tree within the forest and the forest as a whole simultaneously.
The Concept of Energy
The Physicist studies the basic elements of the composition of matter and the energies that relate to our phenomenal world. The Chemist studies the dissipation of energy through matter and the rearrangements of matter as a result. The Biologist studies the types of organic matter aggregations and the means by which energy is temporarily stored for directed usage. I would borrow bits from each.
I would like to make some distinctions as to what kinds of energies we as humans are utilizing for our directed purposes. All aerobic life uses Adenosine-Tri-Phosphate (ATP) for virtually all work to be accomplished within by cells of the body and without by means of muscle contraction. Other molecules may be utilized anaerobically for producing work also. ATP is the energy currency of the cell. ATP is found only in the cell and does not survive long on its own, as ATP, since it is highly reactive in giving up its high-energy phosphate bond. This energy is of prime importance for the body. The burning of carbon with oxygen to liberate heat and electrons is what life is all about. The electrons are used to make ATP. The heat keeps us warm-blooded animals at constant body temperature. The burning of carbohydrates and fats makes water and carbon dioxide as waste products. These go to make up the bicarbonate buffer of the blood and body fluid. Excess water is disposed of by urine formation and excess carbon dioxide is exhaled in the breath. All life may be summed up as 2 things: making ATP and reproducing.
The electron pairs produced from the burning of carbon in the cell may also move through the body along the strands of biological molecules much the same as those moving along a metal wire in an electrical circuit. All biological molecules are superconductive at the temperatures of life. These electron pairs may perform work anywhere in the body as needed.
Each cell of the body have as a result of all their biochemical reactions and cellular architecture a generalized electromagnetic field. Please remember that the movement of matter and energy creates electromagnetic fields around them. Energy and electromagnetic fields are but one form of the other and always exist together. Thus the sum total of all the electromagnetic fields of the cells of the body creates a generalized electromagnetic field that permeates and surrounds the body as a whole. This generalized field is termed the Morphogenic Field in Western science.
AM and TCM state that Prana, Qi, move with Blood and Body Fluid. Prana, Qi, enter the body via the lungs and foods consumed, this being oxygen and carbon compounds. Prana, Qi, are said to be absorbed from the environment. What is this energy? What then of the movement of energy in the Meridians of AM and TCM? What kind of energy is it, by what means does it move and how is it characterized?
Let us discuss the concept of energy first. The energies in our environment are of 2 basic types: gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic. The definition of gravitomagnetism is: The hypothetical analog of magnetism predicted for a moving mass that would cause geodetic spin precession (i.e., a change in the orientation of a spinning mass's axis). And in the matter of the existence of gravitomagnetism, there is Ken Nordtvedt's 1988 paper in the International Journal of Theoretical Physics. As he put it at the end of the introduction of his paper, "In summary, inertial frame 'dragging' -- both linear accelerative dragging and rotational 'Lence [sic.]-Thirring' dragging -- are ubiquitous in gravitational phenomena already observed and measured." Gravitomagnetism is commonplace. One way to look at the matter-energy relationship is to think of matter as frozen energy. This is what modern physics tells us. The interaction of energy and matter is by electromagnetism. From the Theory of Relativity we know that electromagnetic phenomena involve both particles and waves at the same time. Gravitomagnetism is also responsible for time (clocking) phenomena. (1) According to Jack Salter (2) there are a set of "clocking" fields that control all mass and energy. These fields would be inter-related and follow this pattern:
So, at the birth of each atom, a clock is established that is controlled by the larger clocks. When the atoms combine to form molecules, they in turn heterodyne to form the molecular clock. When the molecules combine to form mass aggregations, those molecules collectively combine to form a heterodyned mass aggregate clock. Each mass therefore has multiple controlling clocks that are established at the birth of the aggregation.
Electromagnetic wave frequencies range from extreamly long, low energy radio waves to extreamly short, high energy cosmic rays. See the picture below:
The planet earth throbs regularly every 12 sidereal hours according to gravity-wave detectors located in Geneva, Switzerland and Frascati, Italy. The pulsations, presumably expansions and contractions of the earth, as a whole, have been recorded at both places for over a year. Pulse amplitudes are about 100 times larger than those that are expected from gravity waves, so the Solar System Interplanetary Gravitomagnetic Field Matrix is thought to be involved. Since sidereal time is measured with respect to the fixed stars rather than the sun, an extraterrestrial origin is possible, although no one really knows what sort of cosmic force could make our planet pulse with such precise timing. (3) Geomagnetic pulsations are the manifestation of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) plasma waves in the Earth's magnetosphere. The pulsations have frequencies ranging from approximately 1 mHz to more than 10 Hz and appear as quasi-sinusoidal oscillations in magnetometer data recorded at the Earth's surface, in the ionosphere and in the magnetosphere (see Table 1). (4)
Table 1. Frequency ranges of ULF continuous (Pc) and irregular (Pi) magnetic pulsations.
Previous to the beginning of the evolution of organic entities, was the beginning and evolution of the Solar System and its entities the sun, planets, moons, asteroids and comets. The Solar System has evolved to yield what we observe today and continues to evolve according to the "Laws of Physics" as perceived by mankind. Mass and the energies attendant to mass generate fields and energy dissipations, both gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic, which fluctuate rhythmically through time as has been shown above. Earth, the planet with known organic entities, both generates its own fields/energy dissipations and resonates with the fields/energy dissipations produced by the other members of the Solar System.
Organic entities began then in this cacophony of rhythmic fluctuation of gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic fields/energy dissipations. The means that organic entities evolved to order events through time in this cacophony is nucleic acids of RNA/DNA and genes or more properly as sets of genes called alleles. Biological and Cellular Clocks are known to mimic the rhythms of Solar System entities, most notably the Earth, the Sun and the Moon.
As organic entities evolved into more complex forms, animal evolution developed both diffuse chemical (hormonal) and direct chemical (nervous) means of coordination in response to the field/energy dissipation fluctuations of Solar System entities. Thus, in Man, Cellular Clocks and Biological Clocks order the course of events through time by sequentially turning on and off polygenetic sets of alleles. In Man, the nervous component involved with response to the rhythmic fluctuations is the Pineal-Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis (PHPA). The Pineal Gland responds to the fluctuations of the electromagnetic component of off world Solar System entities. The free running Hypothalamus responds to Cellular Clocks and is mediated by the Pineal Gland for daily and seasonal coordination. The gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic fluctuations of the Earth are the basis for all natural and inherent rhythms of the Hypothalamus and most all body cells. These Earthly fluctuations are most obviously modified by the Sun and the Moon but also more subtly by the other Solar System entities; the planets, asteroids and comets.
Greater than 60% of all alleles in humans deals with the nervous system in some manner and coordinates reproduction, growth, development and social interaction. All organismal life begins with zygotic union of sperm and egg. This union takes place upon the surface of the Earth at a specific location, at a specific time and on a specific date. The resulting growth and development unfolds within the backdrop of the rhythmic fluctuations of the gravitomagnetic and electromagnetic fields/energy dissipations of the Earth as modified by other Solar System entities at the location of residence. As the Earth is in essence a giant electromagnet, it possesses a geomagnetic field with various components. The magnetic field flux is toroidal in shape.
Earth pulsations particularly relevant to human behavior are the Schumann Waves. The Schumann Resonance(s) are quasi-standing electromagnetic waves that exist in the Earth's 'electromagnetic' cavity (the space between the surface of the Earth and the Ionosphere). They are not caused by anything internal to the Earth, its crust or its core. They seem to be related to electrical activity in the atmosphere, particularly during times of intense lightning activity. At any given moment, there are about 300 electrical storms upon the Earth. The Schumann resonances occur at several frequencies, specifically 7.8 (strongest), 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 and 45 (weakest) Hertz, with a daily variation of about ± 0.5 Hertz. So long as the properties of Earth's electromagnetic cavity remains about the same, these frequencies remain the same. Presumably there is some change due to the solar sunspot cycle as the Earth's ionosphere changes in response to the 11-year cycle of solar activity. The resonant properties of this terrestrial cavity were first predicted by the German physicist W. O. Schumann between 1952 and 1957, and first detected in 1954. NASA has, since the Mercury Space Flights, artificially generated these frequencies aboard all spacecraft with manned flight. It was determined to be crucial for the psychological and physiological well being of the Astronauts.
Chakra Frequency Chart: These are energy centers related to the meridians of acupuncture, and correspond to physical organs and to Schumann harmonics as follows:
The Hartmann and Curry waves form a grid over the entire Earth. The lines of the Hartmann Grid, named after its discoverer Dr. Ernst Hartmann, run north to south as well as east to west, forming a checkerboard pattern. The distance between the lines may be different in your area, depending primarily on the rock beneath the soil where you are living, which will cause some variance. Far north of the equator, the lines of the Hartmann grid are about 6 feet 6 inches apart. Closer to the equator, they are about 8 feet apart, and they are wider (9 inches) and much less intense. The Curry Grid, named after Dr. Manfred Curry, runs diagonal to the Hartmann Grid, from northwest to southeast, southwest to northeast. The distance between Curry lines is about 12 feet apart. The lines of both grids alternate between (+) and (-). Thus one may have a (+), neutral or (-) spot where the lines intersect. The geomagnetic fluxes of these grids rhythmically pulsate within the overall Geomagnetic Field of the Earth.
I propose that the sets of alleles inherited from the parents respond to these rhythmic fluctuations in kind and result in the birth of a new conscious human being at a specific time and on a specific date at the location of residence by the mother of the newborn. The subsequent growth and development of the organism yields an adult with genetically predisposed capabilities, talents and personality features. The sets of behavioral alleles have responded to these rhythmic fluctuations at the site of growth and yielded a new individual. The individual then learns through self-discovery and/or social interaction to utilize and further their predispositions in the process of personality development. It is the particular characteristics of the local grid system in relation to the overall Solar System Interplanetary Electromagnetic Field Matrix that yields the specific resonance that the DNA/Chromosomal complex responds. This in turn yields the permutations of the genetic alleles that then determines the expression of the possible hereditary characteristics that are possessed by the new individual.
So, now we have some idea as to how the energy alluded to by practitioners of the meditational arts may be characterized. Now let us discuss the polar opposites. In the body, (+) charges are carried by cations, biological molecules and, most importantly, by free protons. Negative charges are carried by anions, biological molecules and electron pairs known as Cooper pairs. Spin resonance of electrons and protons may be clockwise (CW) or counter-clockwise (CCW) in precession depending upon the circumstances in place at the time of birth of the particle. A balanced system will have a net zero overall charge. The relative proportion of CW and CCW matter will be a matter of environmental circumstance for availability. AM and TCM ascribe CW as (+) and CCW as (-). We have already discussed the overall charge relationships of the body in all philosophies.
What then of the movement of energy in the Meridians of AM and TCM? What kind of energy is it, by what means does it move and how is it characterized?
In getting to the answer to these pertinent questions, I will copy some text directly from the article by Dr. Charles Shang, M. D. entitled "The Mechanism of Acupuncture- Beyond Neurohormonal Theory". This article has an excellent bibliography and should be read in its entirety. [Used with permission.]
The morphogenetic singularity theory
The morphogenetic singularity theory developed over the last 2 decades is compatible with the neurohumoral findings of acupuncture effect and also can explain many phenomena in acupuncture beyond the neurohumoral theory.
Acupuncture points are singular points in surface bioelectric field
Epithelia usually maintain a 30-100 mV voltage difference across themselves. This voltage is the potential difference across cell layers, not membrane potential. An acupuncture point which has high density of gap junctions and local maximum electric conductance will also have locally maximum electric current density, a converging point of surface current. It is a singular point of abrupt change in electric current flow. A singular point is a point of discontinuity as defined in mathematics. It indicates abrupt transition from one state to another. Small perturbations around singular points can have decisive effects on a system. As James Maxwell observed: "Every existence above certain rank has its singular points ... At these points, influence whose physical magnitude is too small to be taken account of by a finite being, may produce results of the greatest importance." The pattern of electromagnetic field on the human scalp mapped by SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) shows that the acupuncture point GV20 Baihui is a singular point at the surface magnetic field where the surface magnetic flux trajectories converge and enter the inside of the body. (Dr. Magnus Lou, personal communication) The Governor Vessel is a converging pathway of magnetic flux on the scalp and also a separatrix which divides the surface magnetic field into two symmetrical domains of different flow directions. A separatrix is a trajectory or boundary between spatial domains in which other trajectories have different behavior. Morphologically, the Governor Vessel is also the axis of symmetry on the scalp. This pattern is consistent with the pattern of the meridian system, but different from the distribution of any major nerve, lymphatic or blood vessel on the scalp. The morphogenetic singularity theory suggests that the meridian system is related to the bioelectric field in morphogenesis and growth control.
The role of electric field in growth control and morphogenesis
A variety of cells are sensitive to electric fields of physiological strength. Somite fibroblasts migrate to the negative pole in a voltage gradient as small as 7 mV/mm. Asymmetric calcium influx is crucial in the migration which can be blocked or even reversed by certain calcium channel blockers and ionophores. In most cases, there is enhanced cell growth toward cathode and reduced cell growth toward anode in electric fields of physiological strength.[46,47] Fast growing cells tend to have relative negative polarity. This polarity is due to the increased negative membrane potential generated by the mitochondria at high rate of energy metabolism. Imposed electric fields can cause polarization of mouse blastomeres, reversal of anterior-posterior polarity and dorsal-ventral polarity in lower animal morphogenesis.
Organizing centers have high electric conductance
In development, the fate of a larger region is frequently controlled by a small group of cells, which is termed an organizing center. Organizing centers are the high electric conductance points on the body surface: The amphibian blastopore, a classic organizing center, has high electric conductance and current density. Similar phenomena have also been observed in higher vertebrates. The high conductance phenomenon is further supported by the finding of high density of gap junctions at the sites of organizing centers.[55,56,57,58] At the macroscopic level, organizing centers are singular points in the morphogen gradient and electromagnetic field.38 Disruption of electric field at the organizing center can cause malformation.
Change of electric activity at the organizing centers correlates with signal transduction and can precede morphologic change.[59,60] For example, in amphibians, an outward current can be detected at the site of a future limb bud (an organizing center) several days before the first cell growth.
Acupuncture points originate from organizing centers.
Both acupuncture points and organizing centers have high electric conductance, current density, high density of gap junctions and can be activated by nonspecific stimuli. Therapeutic effect of acupuncture can be achieved by a variety of stimuli as mentioned above. Similarly, morphogenesis of organizing centers can be induced by various stimuli such as mechanical injury and injection of nonspecific chemicals.[52,62]
Meridian - Separatrix - Boundary
At early stages of embryogenesis, gap junction mediated cell-cell communication is usually diffusely distributed which results in the entire embryo becoming linked as a syncytium. As development progresses, gap junctions become restricted at discrete boundaries, leading to the subdivision of the embryo into communication compartment domains. These boundaries are major pathways of bioelectric currents and divide the body into domains of different electric current directions. Separatrices can be folds on the surface or boundaries between different structures and often connect singular points.[38,64] Meridians are separatrices and related to a under-differentiated, interconnected cellular network that regulates growth and physiology. The attributes of separatrix is consistent with the observation in the Inner Classic (Nei Jing) that meridians lie at the boundaries between different muscles. For example, part of the lung meridian runs along the borders of biceps and brachioradialis. Part of pericardium meridian runs between palmaris longus and flexor carpi radialis. Part of gallbladder meridian runs between sternocleidomastoid and trapezius. Trigger points also tend to locate at the boundaries of muscles. The Governor Vessel and the Conception Vessel are the axis of symmetry of the body surface and the boundaries of many different structures. They are also regarded as the convergence of all meridians in traditional acupuncture. In consistence with the under-differentiation of the meridians, it has been observed that the most apical part of folds remain undifferentiated in morphogenesis, including organizing centers such as apical ectodermal ridge.
The role of the meridian system in evolution and physiology.
In ontogeny, the development of organizing centers in the growth control system precedes the development of the nervous system and other physiological systems. The formation and maintenance of all the physiological systems are directly dependent on the activity of the growth control system. As the individual embryonic development recapitulates the evolution of the species,(ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny) the evolutionary origin of the meridian system as an intercellular signal transduction system of growth control is likely to have preceded all the other physiological systems, including the nervous system. Its genetic blueprint might have served as a template from which the newer systems evolved. Consequently, it overlaps and interacts with other systems but is not simply part of the nervous system. The meridian signal transduction is embedded in the activity of the function-based physiological systems. The regulation of many neural, circulatory or immune processes is through growth control mechanisms such as hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, apoptosis with shared messenger molecules and common signal transduction pathways involving growth control genes such as proto-oncogenes.[71,72,73,74,75] Acupuncture also induces the expression of proto-oncogene c-fos. [76,77] Many "non-excitable" cells have shown electrochemical oscillation, coupling, long range intercellular communication [60,78,79] and can participate in the meridian signal transduction.
A unified basis of meridian system and chakra system
Based on the morphogenetic singularity theory, the distribution of meridian system is related to both internal and external structures, and not solely determined by nerves, muscles or blood vessels. The distribution is a result of morphogenesis. Therefore, acupuncture points which are not at obvious extreme points of surface curvature or meridians which are not at obvious surface boundaries may be vestigial or more related to internal structures. The under-differentiated, inter-connected cellular network is not limited to the body surface. The distribution pattern of a certain type of primary tumors reflects the distribution of its normal counterpart. For example, the distribution of primary pheochromocytoma reflects the distribution of normal sympathetic ganglion cells. One type of the least differentiated cells is germ cell. The germ cell tumors [80,81] have a midline and para-axial distribution pattern which spans from the sacrococcygeal region, through anterior mediastinum, tongue, nasopharynx, to pineal gland. It appears to concentrate at 7 locations: sacrococcygeal region, gonads, retroperitoneum, thymus, thyroid,  suprasellar region, and pineal gland. The pattern resembles the chakra system used in yoga and acupuncture, suggesting the existence of under-differentiated cells which may be highly inter-connected in a normal state as part of the "inner meridian system" and provide important regulatory functions.
Now we move to the next phase of this article.
An excellent background article entitled "Bioelectromagnetic Healing, its History and a Rationale for its Use" may be found here.